viernes, 24 de marzo de 2017

The Opioid Crisis in America | edX

The Opioid Crisis in America | edX

Free Course

The Opioid Crisis in AmericaCourse starts March 27, 2017 (Self-Paced)

Every day in the United States more than 1,000 people are treated in emergency departments for not using prescription opioids as directed. In 2015, more than 30,000 people died from overdoses involving prescription opioids. This course challenges preconceptions about who can become addicted to opioids, attempts to reduce the stigma that exists around addiction in general, and explores the multiple pathways to treatment.


The Opioid Crisis in America

Learn about the opioid epidemic in the United States, including information about treatment and recovery from opioid addiction.

A primary care doctor delves into the opioid epidemic - Harvard Health Blog - Harvard Health Publications

A primary care doctor delves into the opioid epidemic - Harvard Health Blog - Harvard Health Publications

Harvard Health Logo

A primary care doctor delves into the opioid epidemic

Monique Tello, MD, MPH


Monique Tello, MD, MPHContributing Editor

Skin Care and Repair - Harvard Health

Skin Care and Repair - Harvard Health

Harvard Medical School





Five-step skin cancer check

Adequate sun protection when outside is the best way to protect against skin cancer. Yet, even if you are diligent about sunscreen, wear wide-brim hats and long-sleeve shirts, and stay in the shade whenever possible, it may not be enough. You still need to look for early signs of skin cancer, so you can alert your doctor.
Product Page - Managing Your Cholesterol

Skin Care and Repair

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What is skin?
Skin and the aging process
Common skin conditions
Skin cancer
SPECIAL SECTION: Protecting your skin
• ... and more!

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CDC | TB | World TB Day

CDC | TB | World TB Day

World TB Day Logo

World TB Day is recognized annually on March 24th to raise awareness about tuberculosis (TB) and to unite worldwide TB-control efforts. This day commemorates the date in 1882 when Dr. Robert Koch announced his discovery of the bacterium that causes TB. It is a time to recognize achievements in TB prevention and control in the United States and renew our commitment to eliminating this devastating disease. 
TB is an important public health issue in the United States; however, data suggest that current strategies will not be sufficient to reach the goal of U.S. TB elimination in this century. A total of 9,287 TB cases were reported in the United States in 2016 according to preliminary data from the CDC National TB Surveillance System. This represents a slight decrease of 259 cases from the 9,546 cases reported in 2015, and is the lowest number of TB cases on record in the United States.
Current TB control strategies prioritize the early diagnosis, isolation, and treatment of those with infectious TB disease. This approach is essential to save lives and stop transmission, but is not sufficient to eliminate TB. We also must ensure persons with latent TB infection (i.e., a person infected with TB bacteria, but does not have active TB disease and is not able to spread the disease) are diagnosed and treated before they can progress to TB disease. This year’s World TB Day theme is Unite to End TB. This theme encourages public health professionals in local and state TB programs to partner with others to expand efforts to diagnose and treat people with latent TB infection.
To eliminate TB in the United States, it will take continued hard work and dedication from those working on the state and local levels. One of the goals of this year’s CDC World TB Day campaign is to highlight this great work, particularly in the area of expanding latent TB infection testing and treatment. The CDC U.S. TB Elimination Champions initiative spotlights organizations and people dedicated to identifying and treating people with latent TB infection in their communities. We encourage you to read and share their stories with your partners and colleagues. Additional CDCresources are available in English and Spanish, including up-to-date information on TB, promotional materials, and other tools you can use as part of your World TB Day events and activities.
Thank you for your work and commitment to eliminate TB in the United States.
Division of Tuberculosis Elimination
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Faster healing with surgical implants zapped by plasma | ISRAEL21c

Faster healing with surgical implants zapped by plasma | ISRAEL21c

Israel21c



Faster healing with surgical implants zapped by plasma

Israeli company’s technology to modify the surface of surgical implants, from dental to breast, relies on the unusual properties of cold plasma.

 MARCH 16, 2017, 8:30 AM
Abigail Klein Leichman
Abigail Klein Leichman is a writer and associate editor at ISRAEL21c. Prior to moving to Israel in 2007, she was a specialty writer and copy editor at a daily newspaper in New Jersey and has freelanced for a variety of newspapers and periodicals since 1984.

Health Care Reform Vote Today

051116_Policy Action Alert Header
U.S. House to Vote on Health Care Reform

Today, the House is expected to vote on the American Health Care ActThis legislation, which will repeal and reform sections of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), contains several provisions affecting the Parkinson's community.

To speak with your U.S. representative about this bill, call (202) 224-3121, press #2 and enter your zip code. This will direct you to your congressional office. Phone calls are one of the most effective ways to make your voice heard.

Read more and take action
.

Women Scientists in America’s History

Dept. of Health & Human Services

Women Scientists in America’s History

Blog: Women Scientists in America’s History
During Women’s History Month in March, it is particularly fitting to recognize women’s vital role and contributions to our nation’s health throughout American history. American women are scientists, doctors, nurses, teachers and researchers, and they are indispensable to strong and healthy families and communities. They are pushing the boundaries of science to cure diseases.
READ MORE: Women Scientists in America’s History
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NIMH » A Third of Suspect Mutations in ASD Just “Noise”

NIMH » A Third of Suspect Mutations in ASD Just “Noise”

Logo for the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).



Contact(s)

Jules Asher
NIMH Press Office
301-443-4536
NIMHpress@nih.gov

A Third of Suspect Mutations in ASD Just “Noise”

Leveraging natural selection narrows the field of potential non-inherited genetic causes
 • Science Update
NIMH-funded researchers have narrowed suspected genetic causes of autism and related developmental disabilities by ruling out what they call the “noise of benign variation.”
A third of the same spontaneous, non-inherited gene glitches found in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, or developmental delay also turned up in unaffected people and didn’t confer risk for the disorders. Such de novo “synonymous variants” were detected at triple the rate previously believed. Eliminating them as possible causes boosted risk attributable to variants found only in people with the disorders. The rarer glitches were much more prevalent in people with the disorders than in their unaffected siblings, further implicating them as risk factors.
Mark Daly, Ph.D. , of Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, and colleagues in the NIMH-funded Autism Sequencing Consortium, reported on their findings February 13, 2017 in the journal Nature Genetics
While evidence suggests that ASD is at least 50 percent heritable, few specific inherited genetic causes have been identified. By contrast, recent years have seen rapid progress in understanding the potentially causal roles played by non-inherited, or de novo, genetic variation in a subset of people with ASD.
People with ASD have abnormally high rates of such de novo mutations, some of which can impair the functioning of proteins. Since people with the disorders are often so impaired that they rarely have children, such disease-causing de novo variants tend to quickly vanish from the gene pool through natural selection. So variants found in people with ASD that also occur in unaffected people are more likely benign.
This offered the researchers a strategy for narrowing the field of suspect risk genes found in affected families by eliminating those also present in the general population. They compared genomic data from 9,246 families with or the related developmental disabilities with data from more than 60,000 unaffected people (drawn from the Exome Aggregation Consortium ). They determined that the approximately one third  of spontaneous variants found in both groups didn’t confer risk for the disorders. Moreover, individuals with ASD had much higher rates of the most suspect disruptive variants than their healthy siblings.
“These results reinforce that not all de novo variants contribute to risk,” explained Geetha Senthil, Ph.D. of the NIMH Office of Genomics Research Coordination. “The findings also underscore that with a large enough sample size one can begin to distinguish even the rare de novo variants that confer risk from those that do not – demonstrating the utility of existing large scale data resources for discovery.”
Mutations in both ASD and general population 
About one third of spontaneous, non-inherited genetic mutations (red) found in people with ASD were also found in the general population. This helped researchers narrow the field of suspected risk-conferring mutations. Since few people with ASD have children, disease-causing mutations tend to disappear from the gene pool – so any spontaneous mutations shared with the general population are likely benign. Source: Autism Sequencing Consortium.

More information

Grants

MH100233, MH100209, MH100229, MH100239, MH097849, MH099286

Reference

Refining the role of de novo protein-truncating variants in neurodevelopmental disorders by using population reference samples.  Kosmicki JA, Samocha KE, Howrigan DP, Sanders SJ, Slowikowski K, Lek M, Karczewski KJ, Cutler DJ, Devlin B, Roeder K, Buxbaum JD, Neale BM, MacArthur DG, Wall DP, Robinson EB, Daly MJ. Nat Genet. 2017 Feb 13. doi: 10.1038/ng.3789. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28191890

This World TB Day, Unite to End TB: Leave no one behind

This World TB Day, Unite to End TB: Leave no one behind

USAID: From the American People

TB doctors



Today is World TB Day and an opportunity for us to come together to fight a disease that causes 1.8 million deaths each year. Despite being curable, tuberculosis (TB) is now the world’s leading infectious disease killer, taking a life every 21 seconds.

Together, with support from our partners, we have helped save 49 million lives in the past 15 years. With increased collaboration, accelerated research and innovation, we can ultimately achieve a TB-free world. 

Let’s keep the momentum going this World TB Day and Unite to End TB! 

To find out more about USAID’s work on TB:


    Photo credit: Person/USAID

    NIH Statement on World Tuberculosis Day | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    NIH Statement on World Tuberculosis Day | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    Contact

    To schedule interviews, contact 
    Elizabeth Deatrick
    (301) 402-1663


    NIH Statement on World Tuberculosis Day



    March 24, 2017
    Statement of Christine F. Sizemore, PhD., Richard Hafner, M.D., and Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. 
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
    National Institutes of Health
    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world’s most devastating infectious diseases. March 24th marks the day in 1882 when German microbiologist Robert Koch announced he had discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes this ancient scourge. Today, in recognition of World TB Day, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), reasserts its commitment to improving our understanding of TB and how to prevent, diagnose and treat it. Around the globe, researchers and the public health community are united in working toward these goals.   
    TB is the world’s leading cause of death from an infectious disease, especially among women and children. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1.8 million people worldwide died of TB in 2015. The symptoms of the disease, which is transmitted through the air and primarily affects the lungs, often begin with coughing, shortness of breath or swollen lymph nodes—but can end in death if left untreated. People with HIV are especially vulnerable: of deaths among people co-infected with HIV and TB, about one quarter are due to TB. In addition, the World Health Organization estimates that about one-third of the world’s population is infected with “latent” TB, in which people carry the bacterium while exhibiting no symptoms.  Five to 10 percent of these latent TB carriers risk developing active TB at some point in their lifetimes. For latent TB carriers who are infected with HIV, this risk is approximately 10 percent per year. Finally, it is important to note that smoking substantially increases TB disease occurrence and risk of death due to TB worldwide.
    A safe and highly effective vaccine against TB will be a critical tool in ultimately controlling the infection. Currently, the only available vaccine against TB is bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), developed in 1921. While this vaccine offers protection against disseminated disease and death in children, it is much less effective against the transmissible pulmonary form of the disease in adults. NIAID supports research across the spectrum of basic, preclinical and clinical development to arrive at innovative new approaches toward the development of vaccines to prevent this disease. 
    The rise in incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of critical concern. Patients with MDR-TB may require more than 2 years of treatment, which can be extremely costly and particularly difficult in resource-limited settings—especially because the side effects of treatment can be severe. XDR-TB is even more difficult to treat, and for some patients, no effective drugs are available. NIAID contributes to the National Action Plan for Combating MDR-TB through its support of research into new diagnostics, as well as antibiotics and other therapies to combat the growing problem of MDR-TB and XDR-TB. For instance, trials being run through some of the programs in NIAID’s HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks will test the efficacy of the drug bedaquiline against MDR-TB. In a separate trial, a combination therapy using both bedaquiline and delamanid will also be tested against MDR-TB.
    In collaboration with research institutions and international organizations, NIAID continues to support advances in TB product development. In June 2016, a NIAID-hosted conference titled “New Approaches to Combating Tuberculosis: Leveraging NIH Intramural TB Research for the Global Effort,” brought together researchers from various institutions throughout the world to discuss ongoing efforts and collaborations. NIAID also co-hosted two workshops on new drugs with the Stop TB Partnership in 2016. 
    As part of NIAID’s focus on improving TB treatment, we also are investigating supportive approaches to help patients during the treatment of their disease. For example, some TB drug regimens require such strict adherence that patients must be observed by a health care professional as they take their daily medication. This is a costly and time-consuming precaution necessary to ensure full recovery and prevent complications. Recently, NIAID-supported trials began to investigate whether mobile technology could replace the need for more frequent in-home visits by health care professionals. Other programs administered through the HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks are researching how to prevent an infection with MDR-TB after close exposure to a case, and whether a 1-month regimen could be effective at preventing TB infection.
    Detecting infection early is key to minimizing suffering caused by TB, and NIAID is working to develop and refine diagnostic tools for TB. In this regard, we contribute to global consortia that are mapping the genetic diversity of MDR or XDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NIAID’s Tuberculosis Research Units Network program has helped identify biomarkers that define the various stages of infection. International collaboration is key to establishing clinical research capabilities and patient cohorts, which will facilitate future research into the clinical and pathologic characteristics and spread of different TB strains in India, Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, and other parts of the world. 
    The World Health Organization estimates that 43 million lives were saved between 2000 and 2014 as a result of improved diagnosis and treatment of TB. Sustained biomedical research is key to continuing to advance medical countermeasures against TB. Through ongoing and future research initiatives, and collaboration with other funding agencies and organizations, NIAID is dedicated to saving and improving the lives of people with TB. 
    Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., is Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Richard Hafner, M.D., is chief of the TB Clinical Research Branch in the NIAID Division of AIDS; Christine F. Sizemore, Ph.D., is chief of the Tuberculosis and other Mycobacterial Diseases Section in the NIAID Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

    NRD Bulletin – 3/22/17

    NRD Bulletin – 3/22/17

    NRD Heading



    MICAIAH ANTHONY/U.S. AIR FORCE

    Photo by MICAIAH ANTHONY/U.S. AIR FORCE

    Though March is Women's History Month, the National Resource Directory celebrates the contributions women in service and as caregivers have made every day. This country has been enriched by the hard work and dedication of women, and because they have provided so much, the NRD is there for them.

    Press Announcements > FDA approves first treatment for rare form of skin cancer

    Press Announcements > FDA approves first treatment for rare form of skin cancer



    FDA Logo, hands holding pills
    The Division of Drug Information (DDI)- serving the public by providing information on human drug products and drug product regulation by FDA.


    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to Bavencio (avelumab) for the treatment of adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), including those who have not received prior chemotherapy. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for metastatic MCC, a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer.
    Common side effects of Bavencio include fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, infusion-related reactions, rash, decreased appetite and swelling of the limbs (peripheral edema). The most common serious risks of Bavencio are immune-mediated, where the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells or organs, such as the lungs (pneumonitis), liver (hepatitis), colon (colitis), hormone-producing glands (endocrinopathies) and kidneys (nephritis). In addition, there is a risk of serious infusion-related reactions. Patients who experience severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions should stop using Bavencio. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Bavencio because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or a newborn baby.
    To learn more, please visit: Bavencio.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to Bavencio (avelumab) for the treatment of adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), including those who have not received prior chemotherapy. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for metastatic MCC, a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer.
    “While skin cancer is one of the most common cancers, patients with a rare form called Merkel cell cancer have not had an approved treatment option until now,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “The scientific community continues to make advances targeting the body’s immune system mechanisms for the treatment of various types of cancer. These advancements are leading to new therapies—even in rare forms of cancer where treatment options are limited or non-existent.”
    According to the National Cancer Institute, approximately 1,600 people in the United States are diagnosed with MCC every year. While the majority of patients present with localized tumors that can be treated with surgical resection, approximately half of all patients will experience recurrence, and more than 30 percent will eventually develop metastatic disease. In patients with metastatic MCC, the cancer has spread beyond the skin into other parts of the body. 
    Bavencio targets the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway (proteins found on the body’s immune cells and some cancer cells). By blocking these interactions, Bavencio may help the body’s immune system attack cancer cells.
    Bavencio received an Accelerated Approval, which enables the FDA to approve drugs for serious conditions to fill an unmet medical need using clinical trial data that is thought to predict a clinical benefit to patients. Further clinical trials are required to confirm Bavencio’s clinical benefit and the sponsor is currently conducting these studies.
    Today’s approval of Bavencio was based on data from a single-arm trial of 88 patients with metastatic MCC who had been previously treated with at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. The trial measured the percentage of patients who experienced complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors (overall response rate) and, for patients with a response, the length of time the tumor was controlled (duration of response). Of the 88 patients who received Bavencio in the trial, 33 percent experienced complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors. The response lasted for more than six months in 86 percent of responding patients and more than 12 months in 45 percent of responding patients.
    Common side effects of Bavencio include fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, infusion-related reactions, rash, decreased appetite and swelling of the limbs (peripheral edema). The most common serious risks of Bavencio are immune-mediated, where the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells or organs, such as the lungs (pneumonitis), liver (hepatitis), colon (colitis), hormone-producing glands (endocrinopathies) and kidneys (nephritis). In addition, there is a risk of serious infusion-related reactions. Patients who experience severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions should stop using Bavencio. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Bavencio because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or a newborn baby.
    The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapydesignation. Bavencio also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.
    The FDA granted accelerated approval of Bavencio to EMD Serono Inc.
    The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.

    Ivanhoe's First to Know for 3/24/2017

    Marketing

    March 24, 2017



    ST. LOUIS, Mo. (Ivanhoe Newswire) — As many as three and a half million Americans will have cataract surgery this year. Most of the time, surgery fixes the problem, but for three percent of the patients there is a surgical side effect that does not go away on its own. For those patients, eye surgeons at Washington University in St. Louis have devised a cutting-edge way to restore clear vision.



    ST. LOUIS, Mo. (Ivanhoe Newswire) — Two-hundred thousand Americans undergo weight loss surgery every year, choosing methods like gastric bypass, banding, or surgical balloons to shrink the stomach and decrease food intake. Now, doctors have another option for patients, when diet and exercise are not enough.



    SAN ANTONIO, Texas. (Ivanhoe Newswire) — It’s a condition that most Americans have never heard of and now experts say as many as one in three of us may be at risk. Fatty liver disease is on the rise. Here’s more on the condition and the continued search for an effective treatment for this gradual killer.



    SEATTLE, Wash. (Ivanhoe Newswire) — She was called to help people more than 20 years ago when she became a nurse. She soon discovered there was more she could do for her patients than care for them at their beds. She is the nurse who protects and paints her patients.



    SUMMIT, N.J. (Ivanhoe Newswire) — As many as 78,000 Americans will be diagnosed with a brain tumor this year.  If those tumors return after surgery, immunotherapy may be an option. It’s a treatment that revs up the body’s immune response to fight the cancer.

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    Smart Living for this week:

    Downsides of Buying A Second Home​

    Foods To Lower Stress

    Car Shopping Advice


     






    Quote of the week:


    Everything you’ve learned in school as “obvious” becomes less and less obvious as you begin to study the universe. For example, there are no solids in the universe. There’s not even a suggestion of a solid. There are no absolute continuums. There are no surfaces. There are no straight lines.” 

    — R. Buckminster Fuller


     


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